The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right
moment for things to work properly.
The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.
A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of
the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:
1. They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
2.They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.
Most cars that “burn oil” and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it because the engine is old and the rings no
longer seal things properly.
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its
angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.
The crankshaft turns the piston’s up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in thebottom of the sump
Raked wingtips are a feature on some Boeing airliners , where the tip of the wing has a higher degree of sweep than the rest of the wing.
The stated purpose of this additional feature is to improve fuel efficiency and climb
performance, and to shorten takeoff fieldlength.
It does this in much the same way that winglets do,by increasing the effective aspect ratio of the wing and interrupting. harmful wingtip vortices. This decreases the amount of lift-induced drag experienced bythe aircraft. In testing by Boeing and NASA,
raked wingtips have been shown to reduce drag by as much as 5.5%, as opposed to improvements of 3.5% to 4.5% from conventional winglets.
While an equivalent increase in wingspan would be more effective than a winglet of the same length, the bending force becomes a
greater factor. A three-footwinglet has the same bending force as a one-foot increase in span, yet gives the same performance gain as a two-foot wing span increase.
For this reason, the short-range Boeing 787-3 design called for winglets instead of the
raked wingtips featured on all other 787 variants.
Raked wingtips are installed on, or are planned to be installed on:
Boeing P-8 Poseidon
Boeing 747-8 Freighter
Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental
Boeing 777 Freighter
You might want to recollect some of the topics you have studied before going into this, if you haven’t don’t worry I will explain it all in this summary. Let us begin the journey………..
You might have studied about Doppler Effect in physics. Of course it deals with the sound from a moving object while listening from a stationary point. The same applies in the light spectrum too. If a light source is drawn away from an observer the most of the blue light in that spectrum will get scattered and the red light is all that remains in that spectrum. This is because the low wavelength of the blue light makes it to scatter when travelling through air molecules and the red light has a larger wavelength which mays it to travel longer distance without getting scattered.
We all know that stars and planets are bound together by a weak and a long range force called gravitational force of attraction. Each and every mass in space possess gravity. Depending upon its mass and density the gravitational magnitude will vary. If an object is lot denser it’s force of gravity will be huge, if its density is low the force of gravity will be low. That’s why extremely dense black holes possess inescapable gravitational force and it can even rip the space and time. We’ll talk about the black holes later.
So, you might ask what this has to do with the spotting of an exo-planet, here’s the reason why.
When a planet revolves around its host star its gravitational force affects the star’s axis of rotation, i.e. the star wobbles due to the gravitational force of the planet.
When the planet comes between the earth and the host star the host star is pulled towards earth for a fractional amount, this makes the light spectrum from the star to possess some blue light wavelength too and when the planet goes behind the star, the star gets pulled away from the earth and the starlight spectrum goes red. By detecting these variations in a starlight spectrum we can easily confirm that a planet definitely revolves around it. By using this method we can also find the mass and density of the planet revolving around it. Although this method can only be used for detecting large planets because only large planets have enough gravity to make the host star wobble along its rotational axis. Remaining ways to find an exo-planet will follow later.
Exo-plants or extraterrestrial planets are really exciting to find and hard to find. Do you really want to know how to detect and find an exo-planet, then tag along on the amazing journey of ways to find one.
The different ways are given below
- Radial velocity
- Transit method
- Orbital light variations
- Light variations due to relativistic beaming and ellipsoidal variations
- Timing variations
- Gravitational micro lensing
- Direct imaging
- Auroral radio emissions
- Modified interferometry
In this series of articles we will see about almost every method in detail. The first one will be out in minutes………. Just stay tuned…………