The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right
moment for things to work properly.
The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.
A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of
the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:
1. They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
2.They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.
Most cars that “burn oil” and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it because the engine is old and the rings no
longer seal things properly.
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its
angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.
The crankshaft turns the piston’s up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in thebottom of the sump
Raked wingtips are a feature on some Boeing airliners , where the tip of the wing has a higher degree of sweep than the rest of the wing.
The stated purpose of this additional feature is to improve fuel efficiency and climb
performance, and to shorten takeoff fieldlength.
It does this in much the same way that winglets do,by increasing the effective aspect ratio of the wing and interrupting. harmful wingtip vortices. This decreases the amount of lift-induced drag experienced bythe aircraft. In testing by Boeing and NASA,
raked wingtips have been shown to reduce drag by as much as 5.5%, as opposed to improvements of 3.5% to 4.5% from conventional winglets.
While an equivalent increase in wingspan would be more effective than a winglet of the same length, the bending force becomes a
greater factor. A three-footwinglet has the same bending force as a one-foot increase in span, yet gives the same performance gain as a two-foot wing span increase.
For this reason, the short-range Boeing 787-3 design called for winglets instead of the
raked wingtips featured on all other 787 variants.
Raked wingtips are installed on, or are planned to be installed on:
Boeing P-8 Poseidon
Boeing 747-8 Freighter
Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental
Boeing 777 Freighter
The outer surface of the wing. Originally made of fabric, modern aircraft use aluminum or composite materials due to their lightweight and rust-resistant properties.
Ribs & Stringers:
These make up the inner skeleton of the wing, providing rigidity and strength. While strength is necessary, it is also important that the wing can flex slightly while it flies. This flexibility allows it to absorb the stress caused by turbulence and hard landings. Spar:
The main center beam of the wing, designed to carry the structural loads and transfer them by attachment to the fuselage, or body of the aircraft.
The wing root is the portion of the wing that attaches to the fuselage, or body of the aircraft.
The wing tip is furthest from the fuselage and is typically where the navigation lights are mounted (a red light on the left, a green light on the right).
Slats: Another “high lift” device typically found on swept or delta wing aircraft. Slats are similar to the flaps except they are mounted on the leading edge of the wing. They also assist in changing the camber to improve lifting ability at slower speeds.
commonly located in the wing, fuel can either be housed in its own tank or allowed to fill the cavities between the ribs. In addition to powering the engines, the fuel adds rigidity to the wing
Flaps are a “high lift/high drag” device. Not only do they improve the lifting ability of the wing at slower speeds by changing the camber,or curvature of the wing, they also create more drag,meaning an aircraft can descend,or lose altitude faster,without gaining airspeed in the process.
Either of two movable flaps on thewings of an airplane that can be used to control the plane’s rolling and banking movements.
To bank to the left, a pilot
must raise the left aileron
and lower the right aileron.
The wings are the most important lift-producing part of the aircraft. Wings vary in design depending upon the aircraft type and its purpose.