The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right
moment for things to work properly.
The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.
A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of
the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:
1. They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
2.They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.
Most cars that “burn oil” and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are burning it because the engine is old and the rings no
longer seal things properly.
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its
angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.
The crankshaft turns the piston’s up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in thebottom of the sump